In 2014 approximately 100 Tg/S of sulfur dioxide (SO2) was released, over half of which was from burning coal.  The structure increasingly resembles graphene, the structural element of graphite. U.S. Electric Power Industry Net Generation", http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/KeyWorld2014.pdf%7C2012, "Biodegradation of coal-related model compounds", "Bateria as agents in the oxidation of amorphous carbon", "Kentucky: Secretary of State – State Mineral", Coal Online – International Energy Agency, Coal Research at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, European Association for Coal and Lignite, Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air, Health and environmental impact of the coal industry, List of top international rankings by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Coal&oldid=995637957, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from Collier's Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 02:49.  However government funding for new coal power plants is being supplied via Exim Bank of China, the Japan Bank for International Cooperation and Indian public sector banks. Coal gasification, as part of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) coal-fired power station, is used to produce syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and the hydrogen (H2) gas to fire gas turbines to produce electricity. A.  The coal industry damages the environment, including by climate change as it is the largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, 14 gigatonnes (Gt) in 2016, which is 40% of the total fossil fuel emissions and almost 25% of total global greenhouse gas emissions. C. A union leader. ", "Pacific nations under climate threat urge Australia to abandon coal within 12 years", "Coal scam: Naveen Jindal, others summoned", "China Tackling Corruption, Safety Concerns in Coal Production", "Coal dumped as IEA turns to wind and solar to solve climate challenge", "Coal exit benefits outweigh its costs — PIK Research Portal", "In coal we trust: Australian voters back PM Morrison's faith in fossil fuel", "Time for China to Stop Bankrolling Coal", "Germany agrees to end reliance on coal stations by 2038", "Spain to close most coalmines in €250m transition deal", "Coal Demand Rises, But Remains Below Peak Levels", "Even in Coal Country, the Fight for an Industry", "Figure ES 1.  Paradoxically, this was during the Late Paleozoic icehouse, a time of global glaciation. This is known as indirect coal liquefaction. Not all countries publish mining accident statistics so worldwide figures are uncertain, but it is thought that most deaths occur in coal mining accidents in China: in 2017 there were 375 coal mining related deaths in China. Some coal-fired power stations could become stranded assets, for example China Energy Investment, the world's largest power company, risks losing half its capital. Because the slate of chemical products that can be made via coal gasification can in general also use feedstocks derived from natural gas and petroleum, the chemical industry tends to use whatever feedstocks are most cost-effective. This occurs as part of First-Footing and represents warmth for the year to come. , China is the largest producer of coal in the world. Mine safety production is a very important issue in China.  The classification of coal is generally based on the content of volatiles. Finely ground bituminous coal, known in this application as sea coal, is a constituent of foundry sand.  Bank loans to finance coal are a risk to the Indian economy. 3 Coal Development and Production. Coal resources occupy more than 75% in the primary energy production and consumption structure.  Coal came to be referred to as "seacoal" in the 13th century; the wharf where the material arrived in London was known as Seacoal Lane, so identified in a charter of King Henry III granted in 1253. , These easily accessible sources had largely become exhausted (or could not meet the growing demand) by the 13th century, when underground extraction by shaft mining or adits was developed. C As geological processes apply pressure to dead biotic material over time, under suitable conditions, its metamorphic grade or rank increases successively into: Cannel coal (sometimes called "candle coal") is a variety of fine-grained, high-rank coal with significant hydrogen content, which consists primarily of liptinite. The coal stockpile simulator contains a number of statistical models which represent the uncertainty inherent in the production in coal plans, for example the delivery of coal. Although they burn coal more efficiently and therefore emit less pollution, the technology has not generally proved economically viable for coal, except possibly in Japan although this is controversial. Sample stowage factors are shown below, but these may be exceeded to a substantial degree: ‘James Cannon,Mine Control: Western Coal Leasing and Development (NewYork, N Y.: CounciI on Economic Priorities, 1978),p 7 percent of Western coal production in 1977. Coal seams can be mined by surface or underground methods (Figure 4.3), with the choice of mining method dictated by both technical and economic factors. , In China, improvements to air quality and human health would increase with more stringent climate policies, mainly because the country's energy is so heavily reliant on coal. Technology refers not just to robots and computers but to the entire body of knowledge or science that informs or improves a production process.  The rapid formation of coal ended with the coal gap in the Permian–Triassic extinction event, where coal is rare. The decline in coal use is largely driven by consumption declines in the United States and Europe, as well as developed economies in Asia. The overall plant efficiency when used to provide combined heat and power can reach as much as 94%.  Coal bed methane extraction is important to avoid mining accidents. China produces more hard coal than any other country by a factor of about three. It's here!  Vast deposits of coal originate in former wetlands—called coal forests—that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) and Permian times.  Those burning underground can be difficult to locate and many cannot be extinguished. Chemical changes are accompanied by physical changes, such as decrease in average pore size. , One of the earliest known impacts of coal on the water cycle was acid rain. Which of these is written in the passive? Thermal efficiency improvements are achievable by improved pre-drying (especially relevant with high-moisture fuel such as lignite or biomass). Coal played an important role in industry in the 19th and 20th century.  This implies that chemical processes during coalification must remove most of the oxygen and much of the hydrogen, leaving carbon, a process called carbonization. Hot exhaust gases from the turbine are used to raise steam in a heat recovery steam generator which powers a supplemental steam turbine. If we assume an average capacity factor of around 64%, daily output for coal can be as low as 1600 MWh per day. An emission intensity (also carbon intensity, C.I.)  Gasification combined with Fischer-Tropsch technology was used by the Sasol chemical company of South Africa to make chemicals and motor vehicle fuels from coal.. While the molten metal is in the mould, the coal burns slowly, releasing reducing gases at pressure, and so preventing the metal from penetrating the pores of the sand. Coal is formed when dead plant matter decays into peat and is converted into coal by the heat and pressure of deep burial over millions of years. In the 21st century, however, the use of coal bed methane is becoming more important.. Fe This is an incorrect option. This includes not just land, but anything that comes from the land.  However many countries, such as the Powering Past Coal Alliance, have already or are transitioned away from coal; the largest transition announced so far being Germany, which is due to shut down its last coal-fired power station between 2035 and 2038. When coal is used for electricity generation, it is usually pulverized and then burned in a furnace with a boiler. Coal resources occupy more than 75% in the primary energy production and consumption structure. This is 100% legal. It is the average emission rate of a given source, relative to units of activity or process/processes. Land resources are the raw materials in the production process.  Some iron and steel making and other industrial processes burn coal. , Burning coal is a major emitter of sulfur dioxide, which creates PM2.5 particulates, the most dangerous form of air pollution. Globally coal is estimated to cause 800,000 premature deaths every year, mostly in India and China. Coal can be used as a feedstock in the production of a wide range of chemical fertilizers and other chemical products. Coal comprises of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, etc. Despite the transformation process, the load factor of coal is not changed when it …  Clinker is rock that has been fused by the natural burning of coal. Some cultures hold that children who misbehave will receive only a lump of coal from Santa Claus for Christmas in their christmas stockings instead of presents. And there would be a net economic benefit. ⟶ Australia accounts for about a third of world coal exports followed by Indonesia and Russia. Then, over millions of years, the heat and pressure of deep burial caused the loss of water, methane and carbon dioxide and increased in the proportion of carbon. , Emission intensity is the greenhouse gas emitted over the life of a generator per unit of electricity generated. Hilt's law is a geological observation that (within a small area) the deeper the coal is found, the higher its rank (or grade). The Kahone Thermal Power Station in Senegal, for example, has a capacity of only 102 MW. This is 100% legal. Coal is also an essential ingredient in the production of specialist products such as activated carbons, carbon fibre and silicon metals. Coal is composed of macerals, minerals and water. Includes tools, factories, machines, etc. And coal mine safety issues have become more and more prominent along with the increasing volumes of coal mining.  Coal from the Fushun mine in northeastern China was used to smelt copper as early as 1000 BC. Dehydration removes water molecules from the maturing coal via reactions such as, Decarboxylation removes carbon dioxide from the maturing coal and proceeds by reaction such as, while demethanation proceeds by reaction such as. Since 2001, Indonesia has applied the principles of power decentralization in politics, administrations, and economy. An emission intensity (also carbon intensity, C.I.)  In Roman Britain, with the exception of two modern fields, "the Romans were exploiting coals in all the major coalfields in England and Wales by the end of the second century AD". Like nuclear production, small coal-fired plants can have a maximum capacity as low as hundreds of MW. Typically, coal-fired plants have capacity factors that range from 50 to 80%, depending on location and demand. Coal as an energy source Coal is an abundant natural resource that can be used as a source of energy, as a chemical source from which numerous synthetic compounds (e.g., dyes, oils, waxes, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides) can be derived, and in the production of … The emission intensity of coal varies with type and generator technology and exceeds 1200g per kWh in some countries. An emission factor is a coefficient which allows to convert activity data into GHG emissions.  It has also revealed that low use of technology such as SCR has resulted in high NO2 emissions in South Africa and India.  Coke is made from coking coal by baking in an oven without oxygen at temperatures as high as 1,000 °C, driving off the volatile constituents and fusing together the fixed carbon and residual ash.  In 2019 production increases in countries; such as China, Indonesia, India, Russia and Australia; equalled the falls in the United States and Europe, but coal's structural decline continued in the 2020s.. The Stowage Factor of coal, depending as much as it does upon trimming, varies very considerably for the same class and port.  In this paper, a coal production safety control math model is calculated here. ... coal and plants are examples of which productive resource? 4 ) together with pig iron, which is too rich in dissolved carbon so must be treated further to make steel. But bacteria and fungi did not immediately evolve the ability to decompose lignin, so the wood did not fully decay but became buried under sediment, eventually turning into coal. , 27.6% of world energy was supplied by coal in 2017 and Asia used almost three quarters of it. Combines with other oxides to make sulfates. China mines almost half the world's coal, followed by India with about a tenth. Preview this quiz on Quizizz.  Evidence of trade in coal, dated to about AD 200, has been found at the Roman settlement at Heronbridge, near Chester; and in the Fenlands of East Anglia, where coal from the Midlands was transported via the Car Dyke for use in drying grain. The burning of coal also produces sulfur and nitrogen oxides that react with atmospheric moisture to produce sulfuric and nitric acids —so-called acid rain. D. Dollars. Shares are based on data expressed in tonnes oil equivalent.  However low-lying Pacific Islands are concerned the transition is not fast enough and that they will be inundated by sea level rise; so they have called for OECD countries to completely phase out coal by 2030 and other countries by 2040. Abstract Coal mining is frequently halted for long periods of time due to geological faults, and the process of resuming mining is often fraught with danger. Also called human resources. That's what differentiates them from consumer goods. B. Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Some common land or natural resources are water, oil, copper, natural gas, coal, and forests. The largest producer of thermal coal for power-generating plants is the Siberian Coal Energy Company (SUEK), which has branches operating in various coal regions. This can affect the flows of rivers, and has consequential impacts on other land uses. Extract of sample "The Role of Coal as an Energy Source"  Mining and processing of coal causes air and water pollution. Which of the following is an example of using physical capital to save time and money?-building extra space in a factory to simplify production-lowering workers' wages to increase profits-switching from oil to coal to make production cheaper-hiring more workers to do a job Coking coal and use of coke to smelt iron, Switch to cleaner fuels and lower carbon electricity generation.  In 2018 global installed capacity was 2TW (of which 1TW is in China) which was 30% of total electricity generation capacity. Broadly defined total subsidies for coal in 2015 have been estimated at around US$2.5 trillion, about 3% of global GDP.  Coal in Turkey benefited from substantial subsidies. The use of coal in the United Kingdom declined as a result of the development of North Sea oil and the subsequent dash for gas during the 1990s. These resources are gifts that are given by nature. Soft coal is also known as brown coal or lignite. , Although coal is known from most geologic periods, 90% of all coal beds were deposited in the Carboniferous and Permian periods, which represent just 2% of the Earth's geologic history. These are crosslinked by carbohydrate chains to form the lignin, which has an overall composition approximating (C31H34O11)n Cellulose is a polymer of glucose with the approximate formula (C6H10O5)n. Lignin has a weight composition of about 54% carbon, 6% hydrogen, and 30% oxygen, while cellulose has a weight composition of about 44% carbon, 6% hydrogen, and 49% oxygen.  In Centralia, Pennsylvania (a borough located in the Coal Region of the United States), an exposed vein of anthracite ignited in 1962 due to a trash fire in the borough landfill, located in an abandoned anthracite strip mine pit. Coal mining can also cause long lasting fires, and it has been estimated that thousands of coal seam fires are burning at any given time. In this extraction process, seams of coal are removed from the mountainside by using explosives to remove the top of the mountain, making the coal below easier to access. It is also customary and considered lucky in Scotland and the North of England to give coal as a gift on New Year's Day.  Most coal mined is thermal coal (also called steam coal as it is used to make steam to generate electricity) but metallurgical coal (also called "metcoal" or "coking coal" as it is used to make coke to make iron) accounts for 10% to 15% of global coal use..  For example, Brennender Berg has been burning since 1668 and is still burning in the 21st century.  Seacoal Lane and Newcastle Lane, where coal was unloaded at wharves along the River Fleet, still exist. , In 2018 USD 80 billion was invested in coal supply but almost all for sustaining production levels rather than opening new mines. , Around 10% of coal is ash: coal ash is hazardous and toxic to human beings and some other living things. The use of coal as fuel causes ill health and deaths.  Coal ash contains the radioactive elements uranium and thorium.  , The production of coke from coal produces ammonia, coal tar, and gaseous compounds as by-products which if discharged to land, air or waterways can pollute the environment. , In 2016 world gross carbon dioxide emissions from coal usage were 14.5 gigatonnes. Throughout history, coal has been used as an energy resource, primarily burned for the production of electricity and/or heat, and is …  Germanic cognates include the Old Frisian kole, Middle Dutch cole, Dutch kool, Old High German chol, German Kohle and Old Norse kol, and the Irish word gual is also a cognate via the Indo-European root.. energies Article Life Cycle Modelling of the Impact of Coal Quality on Emissions from Energy Generation Lukasz Lelek 1,* and Joanna Kulczycka 2 1 Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wybickiego 7A Str., 31-261 Cracow, Poland 2 Faculty of Management, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-067 Cracow, Poland; email@example.com In 2014, 55 per cent of Alberta’s electricity was produced from 18 coal-fired generators. 16) by the Greek scientist Theophrastus (c. 371–287 BC):.  Wild coal fires in the area were reported by the Lewis and Clark Expedition as well as explorers and settlers in the area. The analysis shows costs increase from $0.14/MWh to $0.67/MWh over the system, representing 2% to 7% of total production costs. Coal has been used as an energy source for nearly 2000 years. The production is done on the land.  Coal pollution costs the EU €43 billion each year. Various other organic compounds, such as waxes and nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds, are also present. After undergoing a cleansing process, coal is … Underground mining can have ten times higher methane releases than open pit coal mining. , About 8000 Mt of coal are produced annually, about 90% of which is hard coal and 10% lignite. Soft coal is also known as brown coal or lignite. , A 2017 study in the Economic Journal found that for Britain during the period 1851–1860, "a one standard deviation increase in coal use raised infant mortality by 6–8% and that industrial coal use explains roughly one-third of the urban mortality penalty observed during this period. Cyclothems are thought have their origin in glacial cycles that produced fluctuations in sea level, which alternately exposed and then flooded large areas of continental shelf. Coal production on Indian lands doubled be-tween 1973 and 1977 to almost 23 miiIion tons. This includes not just land, but anything that comes from the land.  The alternative name was "pitcoal", because it came from mines. Precombustion technology can sometimes be used as a supplement to postcombustion technologies to control emissions from coal-fueled boilers. A garbage truck driver is an example of which Factor of Production? A. “Land” is quite a broad category as a factor of production in that it refers to all natural resources. “Land” is quite a broad category as a factor of production in that it refers to all natural resources. If hydrogen is the desired end-product, however, the syngas is fed into the water gas shift reaction, where more hydrogen is liberated: Coal can be converted directly into synthetic fuels equivalent to gasoline or diesel by hydrogenation or carbonization.  Some countries use the ideas of a "Just Transition", for example to use some of the benefits of transition to provide early pensions for coal miners. Includes tools, factories, machines, etc. capital. The conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called coalification. A key feature of natural resources is that people can’t make them. Coal is a black sedimentary rock. Low gas prices have squeezed US coal demand more than any other factor. This beneficially masks some of the warming caused by increased greenhouse gases. When heated, the coal decomposes and the bod becomes slightly friable, easing the process of breaking open holes for tapping the molten metal.. Almost all Russia’s coal is mined by private companies. But the Industrial Revolution dramatically increased the demand for coal. As carbonization proceeds, aliphatic compounds (carbon compounds characterized by chains of carbon atoms) are replaced by aromatic compounds (carbon compounds characterized by rings of carbon atoms) and aromatic rings begin to fuse into polyaromatic compounds (linked rings of carbon atoms).  In 2013, the head of the UN climate agency advised that most of the world's coal reserves should be left in the ground to avoid catastrophic global warming. , The energy density of coal is roughly 24 megajoules per kilogram (approximately 6.7 kilowatt-hours per kg). A lake.   As of 2019[update] this may be helping to cause a carbon bubble which could cause financial instability if it bursts.  State owned China Energy Investment runs a coal liquefaction plant and plans to build 2 more. The analysis shows costs increase from $0.14/MWh to $0.67/MWh over the system, representing 2% to 7% of total production costs. Note:  Peat is considered a precursor to coal. Refined coal is the product of a coal-upgrading technology that removes moisture and certain pollutants from lower-rank coals such as sub-bituminous and lignite (brown) coals.  Coal alone may cost Australia billions, whereas costs to some smaller companies or cities could be on the scale of millions of dollars. , The composition of coal is reported either as a proximate analysis (moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash) or an ultimate analysis (ash, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur). Coal is also used to produce very high temperatures through combustion. For example, if a laborer works and her efforts create a good or service, she contributes to labor resources. is the emission rate of a given pollutant relative to the intensity of a specific activity, or an industrial production process; for example grams of carbon dioxide released per megajoule of energy produced, or the ratio of greenhouse gas emissions produced to gross domestic product (GDP). For a coal power plant with a 40% efficiency, it takes an estimated 325 kg (717 lb) of coal to power a 100 W lightbulb for one year. The "volatile matter" does not exist by itself (except for some adsorbed methane) but designates the volatile compounds that are produced and driven off by heating the coal. Coke from coal is grey, hard, and porous and has a heating value of 29.6 MJ/kg. The first factor of production is land, but this includes any natural resource used to produce goods and services.  The furnace heat converts boiler water to steam, which is then used to spin turbines which turn generators and create electricity. Therefore, market trends depend on Chinese energy policy. , Maximum use of coal was reached in 2013. Dehydration does both. Coal burnt as a solid fuel in coal power stations to generate electricity is called thermal coal. 2 The coke must be strong enough to resist the weight of overburden in the blast furnace, which is why coking coal is so important in making steel using the conventional route. The cellulose and hemicellulose component ranges from 5% to 40%. , Allegations of corruption are being investigated in India and China.. Table 7.5 shows the amounts of coal mined by some large coal producers. In 2017 38% of the world's electricity came from coal, the same percentage as 30 years previously. Petroleum coke (petcoke) is the solid residue obtained in oil refining, which resembles coke but contains too many impurities to be useful in metallurgical applications. Countries with annual production higher than 300 million tonnes are shown. Coal mining, the process of extracting coal from the ground, is a common economic activity around the world.  Coal-powered plants emit nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, particulate pollution and heavy metals, which adversely affect human health. ... coal and crude oil.  Efforts around the world to reduce the use of coal have led some regions to switch to natural gas and electricity from lower carbon sources. Scrap steel can be recycled in an electric arc furnace; and an alternative to making iron by smelting is direct reduced iron, where any carbonaceous fuel can be used to make sponge or pelletised iron. Labor C. Physical Capital D. Human Capital.  After release, the sulfur dioxide is oxidized to H2SO4 which scatters solar radiation, hence its increase in the atmosphere exerts a cooling effect on climate. Coal to chemical processes require substantial quantities of water. The four factors include: • Capital Goods - a man-made factor of production used by labor in making other products.  Other ways to use coal are as coal-water slurry fuel (CWS), which was developed in the Soviet Union, or in an MHD topping cycle.  As of 2019[update] G20 countries provide at least US$63.9 billion of government support per year for the production of coal, including coal-fired power: many subsidies are impossible to quantify but they include US$27.6 billion in domestic and international public finance, US$15.4 billion in fiscal support, and US$20.9 billion in state-owned enterprise (SOE) investments per year. Power sector planning is rarely driven … , Coal is known from Precambrian strata, which predate land plants. The Kahone Thermal Power Station in Senegal, for example, has a capacity of only 102 MW. And coal mine safety issues have become more and more prominent along with the increasing volumes of coal mining. Primary chemicals that are produced directly from the syngas include methanol, hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which are the chemical building blocks from which a whole spectrum of derivative chemicals are manufactured, including olefins, acetic acid, formaldehyde, ammonia, urea and others. , Peak coal is the peak consumption or production of coal by a human community. In these wetlands, the process of coalification began when dead plant matter was protected from biodegradation and oxidation, usually by mud or acidic water, and was converted into peat. Spills of fly ash, such as the Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill, can also contaminate land and waterways, and destroy homes. It is the world's largest energy consumer, and coal in China supplies 60% of its primary energy. A grade between bituminous coal and anthracite was once known as "steam coal" as it was widely used as a fuel for steam locomotives. This trapped the carbon in immense peat bogs that were eventually deeply buried by sediments.  In 2019, the Pacific Island nations (in particular Vanuatu and Fiji) criticized Australia for failing to cut their emissions at a faster rate than they were, citing concerns about coastal inundation and erosion. , Of the factors involved in coalification, temperature is much more important than either pressure or time of burial. • Labor - any form of human effort exerted in production. Accurately detecting the top of a coal seam before blasting is a key factor to effectual coal recovery. A grass fire in a coal area can set dozens of coal seams on fire.  For example, mining affects groundwater and water table levels and acidity. 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